Authored By:

Yashraj Verma - Jnr. Associate Editor

NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY 2020 Recently, the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 was drafted by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (destined to be known as the Ministry of Education). The arrangement is planned for changing the Indian instruction framework to address the issues of the 21st Century. The new arrangement looks for amendment of helpless proficiency and numeracy results related to grade schools, a decrease in dropout levels in the centre and auxiliary schools and adoption of the multi-disciplinary methodology in the advanced education framework.

The New Education Policy was endorsed by the Union cabinet on the 29th of July, amending of a 34-year-old policy. The New Education strategy is a reformative instruction strategy that accentuates the general down to earth improvement of the kid and with a dream of value accentuation on the kid to make him a piece of the unbounded changes in the general public. The strategy can be named as progressive change as this changed the long-standing curriculum and included the needed claims of the new world.

The key highlights of the new policy include:

The current arrangement of 10+2 has been changed to the arrangement of 5+3+3+4. The primary stage is the foundational stage between the ages 3-8 years old that underlines the staggering play/movement-based learning. The following stage is the Preparatory stage with age bunch 8-11 years that accentuates the play, revelation, action-based, and intelligent homeroom learning. The third stage is the Middle stage with kids between the age bunch 11-14 years and the accentuation will be on test learning. The final stage is the Secondary stage with kids between age bunches 14-18 years and the multidisciplinary study, more noteworthy basic reasoning, adaptability, and understudies selection of subjects will be the features.

The severe division of Arts, Science and Commerce is supplanted where the youngster can pick subjects depending on his advantage that will set him up to seek after the field that he wants. The schools shall be digitally equipped and technologically developed to be in match with the developments of the new world order. The board exams shall be a test of core competencies rather than the memorized facts that shall give practical knowledge of his area of study. The mode of guidance up to standard fifth will be in the native language which will give accentuation on the underlying foundations of an individual's way of life and makes learning simpler. The prospectus will be amended to incorporate Indian dialects, societies and qualities that will build up a feeling of having a place with the individuals and make them work for the advancement of the country without overlooking the past. Three dialects will be made obligatory out of which two will be native to India. This opportunity to pick the dialects will likewise reduce the long-standing issue of lingual contrasts of states and also furnish a chance to build up contact with lingual personalities. The assessment shall be done with a 360-degree holistic progress card, tracking students' progress for achieving learning outcomes. There will, likewise, be different ways out in the degree, which will be of 3 and 4 years. The first year exit will be granted with a professional testament, the second year with a Diploma and a third-year exit with a degree authentication. The National Research Foundation is created as an apex body of research that shall provide grants and necessary helps to create a strong research culture within the students.

The Higher Education Commission of India is set up which will be a solitary umbrella body for the whole advanced education barring medical and legal education.

These are: 1. National Higher Education Regulatory Council for regulation. 2. General Education Council for standard setting. 3. Higher Education Grants Council for standard-setting. 4. National Accreditation Council for Accreditation. The National Assessment Center Park has been set up to assess the development and advancements of the students, which will propose the fundamental changes expected to receive to the evolving society. The above mentioned can be named as the key features of the new arrangement that will make the truly necessary changes in the segment of instruction with an all-encompassing methodology in the life of the students. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Introduction

Environmental Impact Assessment started in the 1960s as a feature of expanding environmental awareness and acquired conventional status in 1969 with the enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act, 1970. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a procedure of assessing the reasonable ecological effects of proposed projects or developments, considering the areas like related financial, social and human-wellbeing impacts, which are both gainful and unfavourable to the environment.

As per the United Nations Environmental Program, the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an instrument used to recognize the ecological, social and economical effects of a task, before decision-making. It means to predict regular impacts at a starting stage in project planning and design and to find accessible assets to diminish negative impacts, shape projects to suit the close by condition and present the desires and options in contrast to the decision-makers. In India, it is governed by the Environment Protection Act, 1986 and this Act is the basis for further developments.

In 1972, the Stockholm Declaration on Human Environment was passed, which contained 26 principles concerning the environment and development. India, soon after this declaration, enacted its laws to control water pollution (1974) & air pollution (1981) and thrived for development. Taking cognizance into the issue, the EIA standards set up a legitimate structure for directing projects that get to deplete and contaminate natural resources. Every developmental project has been required to go through the EIA procedure for acquiring prior environmental clearance ever since. The EIA plays out the significant function of surveying and controlling the effect of new tasks on the environment.

Importance of EIA

  1. EIA ensures that the formative arrangement is naturally stable and within the restrictions of the limit of digestion and recovery of the biological system.

  2. It gives a cost-effective strategy to dispense with or limit the antagonistic effect of developmental projects.

  3. It empowers the decision-makers to dissect the impact of developmental activities on the environment a long time before the developmental project is executed.

  4. It joins condition with improvement for an environmentally protected and sustainable turn of events.

The 2020 draft

In 2020, the government redrafted it to fuse the changes and applicable court order pronounced since 2006, and to make the EIA "process more straightforward and practical." With the new draft, comes the increased discretionary power of bureaucracy. It proposes to expand the administration’s optional force and constraining open commitment in shielding the environment. Tasks concerning national protection and security are viewed as vital. For different undertakings, the government gets the chance to choose the "vital" tag. No data on such activities will be accessible to the general public.

2020 draft excludes a long list of projects from the public consultation, even projects on roads and pipelines in fringe territories (border areas) are kept away from the realm. The 'fringe territory' (border areas) is characterized as "zone falling inside 100 kilometres aerial distance from the Line of Actual Control with circumscribing nations of India." That would cover a significant part of the Northeast, the vault of the nation's most extravagant biodiversity. Apart from this, every single inland waterways project and extension/broadening of national highways are also included and these also incorporate roads that slice through forests and digging of significant rivers.

On the off chance that any infringement is occurring, they must be accounted for either by a government authority or the engineers themselves. There is no scope for any public complaint about infringement. Rather, the dependence is on the violators to disclose suo moto that they broke the law before to the draft, constructed structures of 20,000sq.m or above required an environmental clearance after a definite investigation by the state-level master evaluation board of trustees. But now according to the 2020 draft, the breaking point will be 1,50,000sq.m for the same. The evaluation is done by an Expert Appraisal Committee (EAC), which comprises of researchers and project management experts. The EAC would then be able to make a last evaluation of the task and forward that to the governmental regulatory authority, which is the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF).

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